Anthro in the news 9/29/14

  • Relevance of cultural anthropology to business

The Huffington Post carried an article describing how concepts in cultural anthropology apply to business models as presented in a new book, Handbook of Anthropology in Business, edited by Rita Denny and Patricia Sunderland. Denny and Sunderland are anthropologists who run a consumer research and strategic consultancy, Practica Group. Their clients include SC Johnson, Whirlpool, Nissan, Pernod Ricard, Target, PepsiCo, Samsung, and Darden Restaurants. This Handbook demonstrates the links between the commercial arena and ethnographic research and cultural analysis. The book presents findings from 60 international scholars. Sections include: Dynamics of Tension, Forces of Change: With “Big Data” coming into the forefront, what is the anthropologist’s role in sorting through, applying reason, making sense, and ultimately turning it to a productive business use?; Boundaries Breached and Blurred: Where does anthropology come into play when we are dealing in a global marketplace? Can interactions with other countries be enhanced with better cultural understandings?; Plying the Trade: Who are the anthropologists that have managed to successfully insert themselves into the business paradigm? How do they co-exist with the number crunchers and old-line sales mentalities?; and The Energy of Memes: How do ideas, products, or behaviors circulate through a culture? Is there a way to enhance the process?

  • Tattoos on the rise

CNN reviewed a new book about body art by Nicholas Thomas, Director of the Museum of Archeology and Anthropology at Cambridge University. He argues that the tattoo has made a powerful comeback: “There has been an extraordinary, epochal change in the last 25 years…When I was a child in the 1960s, we didn’t see tattoos everywhere. But there has been an explosion in popularity, and this tells us a lot about who we are, both culturally and as individuals.”

  • New Task Force of the American Anthropological Association on Israel-Palestine

Al Jazeera reported on the announcement by the American Anthropological Association (AAA) of the creation of the Task Force on AAA Engagement with Israel/Palestine, part of a broad association effort to respond to members’ interest in dialogue about the ongoing Israel/Palestine conflict. The Task Force is charged with helping the Executive Board consider the nature and extent to which AAA might contribute to addressing the issues that the Israel/Palestine conflict raises. Task Force members were appointed based on criteria including: significant expertise in relevant subject areas (such as conflict; historical memory); representation of the four fields of archeology, linguistics, biological, and cultural anthropology; and understanding of the association. Members of the group are Chair Don Brenneis (UC-Santa Cruz), Niko Besnier (University of Amsterdam), Patrick Clarkin (University of Massachusetts-Boston), Hugh Gusterson (George Washington University), John Jackson (University of Pennsylvania), and Kate Spielmann (Arizona State University). (more…)

DC event: State, Economy and Society in the Horn of Africa

Friday, October 3, 2014: 1-8pm
City View Room, 7th Floor, 1957 E Street NW

RSVP here

 

Welcome and Opening Remarks
1:00-1:15pm

Barbara Miller – Director of Institute for Global and International Studies, Professor of Anthropology and International Affairs, The Elliott School of International Affairs

Ambassador David Shinn – Former Ambassador to Ethiopia and Burkina Faso,
Adjunct Professor of International Affairs, The Elliott School of International Affairs

 

Conflict, Peacekeeping, and Politics
1:15-2:30pm

Terrence Lyons – Associate Professor, School for Conflict Analysis and Resolution,
George Mason University

Ambassador Lange Schermerhorn – Former Ambassador to Djibouti

Jon Temin – Special Advisor, Africa Program, United States Institute of Peace

Paul Williams – Associate Professor of International Affairs, The Elliott School of International Affairs

 

The State, Rights, and Civil Society
2:30-3:45pm

Semhar Araia – Executive Director, Diaspora African Women’s Network

Daniel Bekele – Executive Director, Africa Division, Human Rights Watch

John Harbeson – Professor of Political Science Emeritus, City University of New York,
Adjunct Professor of International Affairs, The Elliott School of International Affairs

Mahdere Paulos Hirigo – Program Officer, Freedom House

 

Development and Humanitarian Challenges
4:00-5:15pm

Berhanu Abegaz – Professor of Economics, The College of William & Mary

Lauren Carruth – Postdoctoral Fellow, The Elliott School of International Affairs

Derek Headey – Senior Research Fellow, International Food Policy Research Institute

 

Policy Implications
5:15-5:45 pm

Ambassador Lange Schermerhorn – Former Ambassador to Djibouti

Ambassador David Shinn – Former Ambassador to Ethiopia and Burkina Faso, Adjunct
Professor of International Affairs, The Elliott School of International Affairs

 

Reception
5:45 pm

This event is part of the Global Policy Forum series.
Sponsored by: The Institute for Global and International Affairs, The Africa Working Group

Anthro in the news 9/22/14


  • Paul Farmer in Liberia to address Ebola

All Africa carried an article about the arrival of Paul Farmer, medical anthropologist and Partners in Health (PIH) co-founder, in Liberia, as part of a high level delegation from PIH. They are in Liberia to hold discussions with relevant partners on the outbreak and spread of the deadly Ebola virus disease. The PIH delegation, led by Farmer, is jointly in Liberia with a partner institution, Last Mile Health (LMH). The objective of the team’s visit includes seeking the guidance of the Government on the proposed set of immediate response programs to be implemented by the coalition in partnership with the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare and the County Health Teams, including managing an Ebola Treatment Unit (ETU) in southeastern Liberia as well as scaling up community-based interventions. The delegation will also discuss strategies for ensuring that the global response works to strengthen national and country-level institutions by building local capacity (public and private, including for community-based care for Ebola and other diseases).

  • Girls who become boys in Afghanistan

A book review in The Washington Post by Rachel Newcomb, associate professor of cultural anthropology at Rollins College, Virginia, discusses Jenny Nordberg’s new book, The Underground Girls of Kabul:

“Nordberg’s specific focus is on girls and women known as bacha posh, a term that literally means ‘dressed up as a boy, but bacha posh serve as an entry point into a rich exploration of women’s lives in contemporary Afghanistan. Families who have not succeeded in conceiving boys will designate young girls as honorary sons, allowing them to roam freely and masquerade as boys, with the tacit acceptance of others in their communities. At adolescence, most are switched back to young women, a transformation that can be traumatic for those accustomed to their assumed male identities. A few, such as Shahed, a woman in her late 20s who was trained by the Americans to serve as a paramilitary sharpshooter, maintain their bacha posh status, eschewing traditional expectations that they marry and bear children. ‘Some women are braver and stronger than men. I am a warrior,’ Shahed tells the author.

  • America’s National Football League under review

CBS Minnesota carried an article about the widespread concern in the United States about its widely beloved National Football League: (more…)

GW event: Threading a Tale: Language and Cloth in Andean Culture


When:
Saturday, September 20, 2014. 10:30 am
Where: 2320 S Street, NW, Washington, DC

In this illustrated talk, GW Anthropology Professor Emerita Catherine Allen discusses her research on weaving and storytelling in highland Peru. Weavers in the Andean highlands create fabric of great beauty and technical virtuosity, continuing a rich textile tradition spanning over five millennia. The centrality of the fiber arts in Andean culture affects other expressive media, including the spoken word.

Free; no reservations required. Seating is limited, so please arrive early.

For more information:
http://museum.gwu.edu/threading-tale-language-and-cloth-andean-cultures

Can Barshim become king of the high jump?

By Sean Carey

“I think it’s possible to break the record,” said an ecstatic Mutaz Essa Barshim after jumping 2.43 m (7’11.7″) at the recent Diamond League meeting in Brussels, the second highest recorded jump in history.  Much to his and the crowd’s disappointment, he then failed by the tiniest of margins to clear the bar positioned 1 cm higher than Cuban Javier Sotomayor’s 21-year-old 2.45 m (8’0.5″ world record).

Unsurprisingly, Barshim was confident that he could go higher. Referring directly to Sotomayor’s effort he added: “It’s been done by a human, we’re all human, so it’s possible.”

Barshim’s words got me thinking about the human ability to jump. “Much Depends on Dinner,” is the title of a chapter in Daniel Lieberman’s 2013 highly-acclaimed book The Story of the Human Body. The Harvard-based evolutionary biologist links some of our most basic movement patterns, especially walking and running, to strong selection amongst ape-like creatures in Africa at a time of rapid climatic and environmental changes several million years ago.

Put simply, by first standing fully upright and then walking upright, early hominins living at the edges of the central African rainforest were better able to find different types of edible plant material, and thus increase their chances of survival and reproductive success. Then around 2.5 million years ago the descendants of those hominins began to run medium and long distances as well, competing with other animals to add meat to their diet which, among other things, led to our species developing relatively small stomachs but very large brains.

If Lieberman is right about the evolutionary significance of running, then the ability to jump may have evolved in the same period, since both running and jumping depend in part on the storage and release of energy in the plantar arches on the underside of the foot as well as the Achilles tendon connecting the calf muscles to the heel bone. So far, however, our capacity to jump has not been subjected to the same intense analysis by biological anthropologists as locomotion, though anatomists, physiologists and evolutionary psychologists have all gone some way to unravel its complexities – for example, physiologists have discovered that untrained bonobos easily outperform highly-trained human athletes at squat (vertical) jumping, while evolutionary psychologists have identified and explored the manner in which humans in all societies use “motion cues,” including the ability to jump, to recognize and classify fellow humans and other animal species.

But it’s evident that compared with other animals such as frogs, fleas or grasshoppers, humans are not specialist jumpers. So what motivates athletes such as Barshim to spend endless hours practicing alone and then performing in front of purposefully noisy (and sometimes quiet) crowds in stadiums throughout the world?

High jumping is a very good example of why cultural anthropologists think of the body as a sociocultural entity rather than just another material object. As Marcel Mauss put it some years back, “the body is man’s first and most natural instrument” operating in complex sociocultural fields – which includes small (or large) changes in technology with unforeseen consequences.

In fact, the technique for contemporary high jumping was revolutionized in the mid-1960s by U.S. high jumper Dick Fosbury, who took advantage of the deep foam matting that replaced sand or sawdust in the landing area to experiment with new ways of going over the bar. Instead of using a traditional scissor jump, straddle technique, or Western roll, Fosbury ran the last few strides in a curve, which allowed him to lean away from the bar and obtain a good degree of rotatory momentum around his spinal axis. This technique, with the head leading, face pointing skywards, and arched body and extended legs following, allowed Fosbury to jump much higher than he had before. It worked so well that with a jump of 2.24 m (7’4″) on his third attempt he won the gold medal at the 1968 Mexico City Olympics. His competitors saw there was a huge advantage in this highly counterintuitive way of moving, and over the next few years most switched styles.

Today everyone jumps using the so-called Fosbury Flop — though my guess is that many younger competitors erroneously think that this is the way the high jump was always performed in the modern era.

Meanwhile back in Brussels, Barshim had come up with a neat metaphor for his and the current world record holder’s achievements. “It means Javier is the king and now you’re the prince,” he said indicating that in an era of unprecedented media coverage jumping over a very high bar is about achieving global status and recognition rather than anything else. “You might take over at any time, so that’s really big for me and really good motivation.”

So will Barshim be crowned king or remain a prince? His ambition is not in doubt, so 2015 promises to be a big year for this outstanding athlete.

 

Sean Carey is Honorary Senior Research Fellow in the School of Social Sciences, University of Manchester, and a Centre for London Associate. He writes for The Guardian, The Mauritius Times, The New African and African Business. He has a Ph.D. in social and cultural anthropology from the University of Newcastle upon Tyne.

 

Anthro in the news 9/15/14

Arianna Whiteside leads demonstrators as they confront a wall of police during a protest march to the Ferguson Police Department . Source: UPI/David Broome.

  • In Alabama: Learning from Ferguson

AL.com (Alabama) noted an upcoming town hall event sponsored by the University of Alabama at Birmingham which will bring together representatives from the Birmingham Police Department,   professors from the UAB, and the president of the Birmingham Civil Rights Institute to discuss police and minority relations, examine the police killing of an unarmed civilian in Ferguson, Missouri, and to develop solutions. The town hall, called “Police and Minority Relations in Birmingham,” is sponsored by the UAB Department of Social Work, along with the university’s African-American Studies Program, the Anthropology Department, and the College of Arts and Sciences. Anthropology department chair, professor Douglas P. Fry, is one of the speakers.

  • Gluttony and gambling by design

Cultural anthropologist Natasha Schüll bridged the gap between human interaction and machine workings in her research on gambling. Her book Addiction by Design: Machine Gambling in Las Vegas, published in 2012, evolved from her undergraduate thesis. In her book, she examines the connection between compulsive gamblers and the design of the slot machines they play.  Schüll also directed the documentary, BUFFET: All You Can Eat Las Vegas, showcasing the “designed gluttony” of the Vegas buffet scene. The film has screened in film festivals and on PBS. Her current research focuses on the design and use of self-tracking devices — such as when individuals use digital software to record and graphically visualize personal data — and examines what these behaviors say about society’s changing cultural and political values.

Anthro in the news 9/8/14

  • Ebola can be stopped according to double docs

The dynamic duo of medical anthropologist/physicians, Jim Young Kim and Paul Farmer, published an op-ed in The Washington Post arguing that Ebola can be stopped if an effective response system is put in place:

“Ebola is spread by direct physical contact with infected bodily fluids, making it less transmissible than an airborne disease such as tuberculosis. A functioning health system can stop Ebola transmission and, we believe, save the lives of a majority of those who are afflicted…To halt this epidemic, we need an emergency response that is equal to the challenge. We need international organizations and wealthy countries that possess the required resources and knowledge to step forward and partner with West African governments to mount a serious, coordinated response as laid out in the World Health Organization’s Ebola response roadmap.”

Jim Yong Kim is president of the World Bank. Paul Farmer is the Kolokotrones University Professor at Harvard University. Farmer and Kim co-founded the nonprofit organization Partners in Health.

  • Indictment of Discovery News

An article in The Guardian provides a damning indictment of Discovery Channel’s unethical interactions with indigenous people and unprofessional reporting. The article refers to a film series about the Matsigenkas in Peru. Discovery is accused of “staging” scenes and story-lines and providing grossly inaccurate translations.  The article draws extensively on commentary from cultural anthropologist Glenn Shepard. He was in Yomibato when the crew arrived and is one of the world’s leading experts on the Matsigenka.

  • Beyond the category of “women and children” in humanitarian aid

Morwari Zafar, Ph.D. candidate in social anthropology at the University of Oxford, published an article in Foreign Policy, arguing for the need to look within the general category of “women and children” when providing humanitarian aid. While she refers specifically to aid in Afghanistan, the message has wider relevance to those hoping to provide effective aid. (more…)

Happy (U.S) Labor Day from anthropologyworks!

Anthropology in the news will not appear this week but will return on September 8th.

In the United States, Labor Day began in New York City. New York state stands out today as the state with the strongest record of labor unionizing.

DC event: The Unfair Construction of beauty for the (Market) Beast

“Whiter Skin in 1 Week: The Unfair Construction of Beauty for the (Market) Beast,” presented by Dr. Gitiara Nasreen, Visiting Fulbright Scholar from University of Dhaka, Bangladesh. We will serve light refreshments.  Free and open to public.

When: September 10, 2014, 2:00-4:00 pm
Where: Howard University, The Founders Library, 500 Howard Place NW, Washington, DC, 20059
The Founders Library is on the main quad of the campus and is easy to recognize by its tall clock tower that rises above all other buildings. The closest intersection is 4th Street NW, and College Street. There is 4-hour parking along 4th Street NW.  Come through the big iron gates and the Library is directly in front of you.

 

 

Workshop in Abu Dhabi on intangible cultural heritage

Cultural anthropologists, academics and researchers are set to gain a greater understanding of Abu Dhabi’s intangible heritage in a workshop in Abu Dhabi and Al Ain.

Organized by Abu Dhabi Tourism and Culture Authority (TCA Abu Dhabi) under the title, “Identifying Community-based Intangible Cultural Heritage,” the workshop targets heritage enthusiasts, particularly teachers and researchers at the Ministry of Culture, Youth and Community Development, heritage departments, local institutions, individuals, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and others involved in preserving intangible cultural heritage.

The workshop, running between August 24 and September 4, will be supervised by Dr. Nasser Ali Al Humairi, intangible heritage director and Unesco international files coordinator at TCA Abu Dhabi. Participants will receive theoretical training for five days in Abu Dhabi, followed by another five days of practical training in Al Ain City on how to collect documented information covering three intangible cultural heritage elements (Al Harbiyah, Al Majlis and Arabian coffee) which will be on the Unesco’s Intangible Heritage List in 2015.

“This is a very important workshop because the process of identifying community-based intangible cultural heritage is a fairly new practice which does not have a fixed form yet. It draws on different experiences and tools used in multiple research areas including participatory rural appraisal and other developmental participatory tools; receiving free, conscious prior approval by local communities on the decisions related to their future; participatory ethnographic studies, folkloric surveys; oral history studies; and spatial data management and participatory delivery,” said Dr Nasser Al Humairi.